Low CO2 Electricity: The Options For Germany

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This paper is based on the latest iteration of the Gordian Knot Group's electrical grid model. The potential primary sources are wind, solar, nuclear, gas and coal. At user option, the model implements both battery and hydrogen storage. The model minimizes the sum of the grid cost and the social cost of CO2 at a user supplied CO2 price. In this paper the model has been exercised on Germany for a range of CO2 prices and nuclear costs. The results demonstrate the overwhelming importance of the cost of nuclear to the combinations of grid cost and CO2 emissions that are available to Germany.

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